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中国历史文化英文介绍,用英语介绍中国历史

更新时间  2021-11-16 03:32 阅读
本文摘要:用英语讲解中国历史History of ChinaThe recorded history of China began in the 15th century BC when the Shang Dynasty started to use markings that evolved into the present Chinese characters. Turtle shells with markings reminiscent of ancient Chinese

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用英语讲解中国历史History of ChinaThe recorded history of China began in the 15th century BC when the Shang Dynasty started to use markings that evolved into the present Chinese characters. Turtle shells with markings reminiscent of ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty have been carbon dated to as early as 1500 BC.[1] Chinese civilization originated with city-states in the Yellow River (Huang He) valley. 221 BC is commonly accepted to be the year in which China became unified under a large kingdom or empire. In that year, Qin Shi Huang first united China. Successive dynasties in Chinese history developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor of China to control increasingly larger territory that reached maximum under the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty and Manchurian Qing Dynasty.The conventional view of Chinese history is that of a country alternating between periods of political unity and disunity and occasionally becoming dominated by foreign peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese population. Cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia, carried by successive waves of immigration, expansion, and assimilation, merged to create the Chinese culture.Xia DynastyThe historian Sima Qian (145 BC-90 BC) and the account in Chinese the Bamboo Annals date the founding of the Xia Dynasty to 4,200 years ago, but this date has not been corroborated. The Shang and Zhou people had existed within the Xia Dynasty since the beginning of Xia. They were Xia’s loyal vassals. The exact time of the Xia Dynasty is hard to define, but mainly focused on two options, either 431 years or 471 years.Shang Dynasty Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang found in the Yellow River Valley.The earliest discovered written record of China's past dates from the Shang Dynasty in perhaps the 13th century BC, and takes the form of inscriptions of divination records on the bones or shells of animals—the so-called oracle bones. Archaeological findings providing evidence for the existence of the Shang Dynasty, c 1600–1046 BC is divided into two sets. The first set, from the earlier Shang period (c 1600–1300 BC) comes from sources at Erligang, Zhengzhou and Shangcheng. The second set, from the later Shang or Yin (殷) period, consists of a large body of oracle bone writings. Anyang in modern day Henan has been confirmed as the last of the nine capitals of the Shang (c 1300–1046 BC). The Shang Dynasty featured 31 kings, from Tang of Shang to King Zhou of Shang; it was the longest dynasty in Chinese history.Zhou Dynasty Bronze ritual vessel, Western Zhou DynastyMain article: Zhou DynastyBy the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Zhou Dynasty began to emerge in the Yellow River valley, overrunning the Shang. The Zhou appeared to have begun their rule under a semi-feudal system. The Zhou were a people who lived west of Shang, and the Zhou leader had been appointed "Western Protector" by the Shang. The ruler of the Zhou, King Wu, with the assistance of his brother, the Duke of Zhou, as regent managed to defeat the Shang at the Battle of Muye. The king of Zhou at this time invoked the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize his rule, a concept that would be influential for almost every successive dynasty. The Zhou initially moved their capital west to an area near modern Xi'an, near the Yellow River, but they would preside over a series of expansions into the Yangtze River valley. This would be the first of many population migrations from north to south in Chinese history.Spring and Autumn Period Chinese pu vessel with interlaced dragon design, Spring and Autumn Period.In the 8th century BC, power became decentralized during the Spring and Autumn Period (春秋时代), named after the influential Spring and Autumn Annals. In this period, local military leaders used by the Zhou began to assert their power and vie for hegemony. The situation was aggravated by the invasion of other peoples from the northwest, such as the Qin, forcing the Zhou to move their capital east to Luoyang. This marks the second large phase of the Zhou dynasty: the Eastern Zhou. In each of the hundreds of states that eventually arose, local strongmen held most of the political power and continued their subservience to the Zhou kings in name only. Local leaders for instance started using royal titles for themselves. The Hundred Schools of Thought (诸子百家,诸子百家) of Chinese philosophy blossomed during this period, and such influential intellectual movements as Confucianism (儒家), Taoism (道家), Legalism (法家) and Mohism (墨家) were founded, partly in response to the changing political world. The Spring and Autumn Period is marked by a falling apart of the central Zhou power. China now consists of hundreds of states, some only as large as a village with a fort.Warring States PeriodMain article: Warring States PeriodAfter further political consolidation, seven prominent states remained by the end of 5th century BC, and the years in which these few states battled each other are known as the Warring States Period. Though there remained a nominal Zhou king until 256 BC, he was largely a figurehead and held little real power. As neighboring territories of these warring states, including areas of modern Sichuan and Liaoning, were annexed, they were governed under the new local administrative system of commandery and prefecture (郡县,郡县). This system had been in use since the Spring and Autumn Period and parts can still be seen in the modern system of Sheng & Xian (province and county, 省县,省县). The final expansion in this period began during the reign of Ying Zheng (嬴政), the king of Qin. His unification of the other six powers, and further annexations in the modern regions of Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi in 214 BC enabled him to proclaim himself the First Emperor (Qin Shi Huangdi, 秦始皇帝).Qin Dynasty The Terracotta Army of Qin Shi Huang.Main article: Qin DynastyHistorians often refer to the period from Qin Dynasty to the end of Qing Dynasty as Imperial China. Though the unified reign of the Qin (秦) Emperor lasted only 12 years, he managed to subdue great parts of what constitutes the core of the Han Chinese homeland and to unite them under a tightly centralized Legalist government seated at Xianyang (咸阳,咸阳) (close to modern Xi'an). The doctrine of legalism that guided the Qin emphasized strict adherence to a legal code and the absolute power of the emperor. This philosophy of Legalism, while effective for expanding the empire in a military fashion, proved unworkable for governing it in peace time. The Qin presided over the brutal silencing of political opposition, including the event known as the burning and burying of scholars. This would be the impetus behind the later Han Synthesis incorporating the more moderate schools of political governance.Han Dynasty(206 BC-220 AD) A Han Dynasty incense burner with a sliding shutter.The Han Dynasty emerged in 206 BC. It was the first dynasty to embrace the philosophy of Confucianism, which became the ideological underpinning of all regimes until the end of imperial China. Under the Han Dynasty, China made great advances in many areas of the arts and sciences. Emperor Wu (Han Wudi 汉武帝,汉武帝) consolidated and extended the Chinese empire by pushing back the Xiongnu (sometimes identified with the Huns) into the steppes of modern Inner Mongolia, wresting from them the modern areas of Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai. This enabled the first opening of trading connections between China and the West, the Silk Road.Nevertheless, land acquisitions by elite families gradually drained the tax base. In AD 9, the usurper Wang Mang (王莽) founded the short-lived Xin ("New") Dynasty (新的朝) and started an extensive program of land and other economic reforms. These programs, however, were never supported by the land-holding families, for they favored the peasants. The instability brought about chaos and uprisings.Emperor Guangwu (光武帝) reinstated the Han Dynasty with the support of land-holding and merchant families at Luoyang, east of Xi'an. This new era would be termed the Eastern Han Dynasty. Han power declined again amidst land acquisitions, invasions, and feuding between consort clans and eunuchs. The Yellow Turban Rebellion (黄巾之乱,黄巾之乱) broke out in 184, ushering in an era of warlords. In the ensuing turmoil, three states tried to gain predominance in the Period of the Three Kingdoms. This time period has been greatly romanticized in works such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms.Jin Dynasty (265–420)Though the three kingdoms were reunited temporarily in 278 by the Jin Dynasty, the contemporary non-Han Chinese (Wu Hu, 五胡) ethnic groups controlled much of the country in the early 4th century and provoked large-scale Han Chinese migrations to south of the Chang Jiang. In 303 the Di people rebelled and later captured Chengdu, establishing the state of Cheng Han. Under Liu Yuan the Xiongnu rebelled near today's Linfen County and established the state of Han Zhao. His successor Liu Cong captured and executed the last two Western Jin emperors. Sixteen kingdoms were a plethora of short-lived non-Chinese dynasties that came to rule the whole or parts of northern China in the 4th and 5th centuries. Many ethnic groups were involved, including ancestors of the Turks, Mongolians, and Tibetans. Most of these nomadic peoples had to some extent been "Sinicized" long before their ascent to power. In fact, some of them, notably the Ch'iang and the Xiong-nu, had already been allowed to live in the frontier regions within the Great Wall since late Han times.Southern and Northern Dynasties A limestone statue of the Bodhisattva, from the Northern Qi Dynasty, 570 AD, made in what is now modern Henan province.Main article: Southern and Northern DynastiesSignaled by the collapse of East Jin (东晋,东晋) Dynasty in 420, China entered the era of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The Han people managed to survive the military attacks from the nomadic tribes of the north, such as the Xian Bei (鲜卑), and their civilization continued to thrive.In Southern China, fierce debates about whether Buddhism should be allowed to exist were held frequently by the royal court and nobles. Finally, near the end of the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, both Buddhist and Taoist followers compromised and became more tolerant of each other.In 589, Sui (隋) annexed the last Southern Dynasty, Chen (陈,陈), through military force, and put an end to the era of Southern and Northern Dynasties.Sui DynastyThe Sui Dynasty (隋朝), which managed to reunite the country in 589 after nearly four centuries of political fragmentation, played a role more important than its length of existence would suggest. The Sui brought China together again and set up many institutions that were to be adopted by their successors, the Tang. Like the Qin, however, the Sui overused their resources and collapsed. Also similar to the Qin, traditional history has judged the Sui somewhat unfairly. As it has stressed the harshness of the Sui regime and the arrogance of its second emperor, giving little credit for the Dynasty's many positive achievements.Tang Dynasty A Chinese Tang Dynasty tri-colored glaze porcelain horse (ca. 700 AD).Main article: Tang DynastyOn June 18, 618, Gaozu (唐高祖) took the throne, and the Tang Dynasty (唐朝) was established, opening a new age of prosperity and innovations in arts and technology. Buddhism, which had gradually been established in China from the first century, became the predominant religion and was adopted by the imperial family and many of the common people.Chang'an (长安,长安) (modern Xi'an西安), the national capital, is thought to have been the world's largest city at the time. The Tang and the Han are often referred to as the most prosperous periods of Chinese history.The Tang, like the Han, kept the trade routes open to the west and south and there was extensive trade with distant foreign countries and many foreign merchants settled in China.Five Dynasties and Ten KingdomsMain article: Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms PeriodThe period of political disunity between the Tang and the Song, known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (五代十国), lasted little more than half a century, from 907 to 960. During this brief era, when China was in all respects a multi-state system, five regimes succeeded one another rapidly in control of the old Imperial heartland in northern China. During this same time, 10 more stable regimes occupied sections of southern and western China, so the period is also referred to as that of the Ten Kingdoms (十国).Song Dynasty and Liao, Jin, Western Xia Homeward Oxherds in Wind and Rain, by Li Di, 12th centuryMain articles: Song Dynasty, Liao Dynasty, Western Xia, and Jin Dynasty, 1115-1234In 960, the Song Dynasty (960-1279) (宋朝) gained power over most of China and established its capital in Kaifeng (汴京/汴京,汴京), starting a period of economic prosperity, while the Khitan Liao Dynasty (契丹族辽国,契丹族辽国) ruled over Manchuria and eastern Mongolia. In 1115 the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (女真族金国,女真族金国) emerged to prominence, annihilating the Liao Dynasty in 10 years. Meanwhile, in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, there emerged a Western Xia Dynasty (西夏) from 1032 up to 1227, established by Tangut tribes.Yuan Dynasty Yang Guifei Mounting a Horse, by Qian Xuan (1235-1305 AD).Jurchen tribes' Jin Dynasty, whose names are also rendered "Jin" in pinyin, was defeated by the Mongols, who then proceeded to defeat the Southern Song in a long and bloody war, the first war where firearms played an important role. During the era after the war, later called the Pax Mongolica, adventurous Westerners such as Marco Polo travelled all the way to China and brought the first reports of its wonders to Europe. In the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols were divided between those who wanted to remain based in the steppes and those who wished to adopt the customs of the ChineseMing Dynasty Court Ladies of the Former Shu, by Ming painter Tang Yin (1470-1523).Throughout a short-lived Yuan Dynasty, there was strong sentiment, among the populace, against the rule of the foreigners, which finally led to peasant revolts. The Mongolians were pushed back to the steppes and replaced by the Ming Dynasty (明朝) in 1368.Qing DynastyMain article: Qing DynastyThe Qing Dynasty (清朝, 1644–1911) was founded after the defeat of the Ming, the last Han Chinese dynasty, by the Manchus (满族,满族). The Manchus were formerly known as the Jurchen and invaded from the north in the late seventeenth century. An estimated 25 million people died during the Manchu conquest of Ming Dynasty (1616-1644).参考资料:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_China用英语讲解一下中国的历史文化。用英语!快快!Chinese civilization originated in various regional centers along both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era, but the Yellow River is said to be the Cradle of Chinese Civilization. The written history of China can be found as early as the Shang Dynasty (c. 1700 – c. 1046 BC).[1] Oracle bones with ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty have been radiocarbon dated to as early as 1500 BC.[2] The origins of Chinese culture, literature and philosophy developed during the Zhou Dynasty (1045-256 BC).The Zhou Dynasty began to bow to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC. The ability of the Zhou to control its regional lords lessened, and the kingdom eventually broke apart into smaller states, beginning in the Spring and Autumn Period and reaching full expression in the Warring States period. In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang united the various warring kingdoms and created the first Chinese empire. Successive dynasties in Chinese history developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor of China to directly control vast territories.The conventional view of Chinese history is that of alternating periods of political unity and disunity, with China occasionally being dominated by Inner Asian peoples, most of whom were in turn assimilated into the Han Chinese population. Cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia, carried by successive waves of immigration, expansion, and cultural assimilation, are part of the modern culture of China.用英文讲解中国历史人物In 200, Yuan Shao amassed more than 100,000 troops and marched southwards on Xuchang in the name of rescuing the emperor. Cao Cao gathered 20,000 men in Guandu, a strategic point on the shore of the Yellow River. The two armies come to a standstill as neither side was able to make much progress. Cao Cao's lack of men did not allow him to make significant attacks, and the pride of Yuan Shao forced him to target Cao Cao's force head-on. Despite his overwhelming advantage in terms of manpower Yuan Shao was unable to make full use of his resources because of his indecisive leadership and Cao Cao's location.Besides the middle battleground of Guandu, two lines of battle were present. The eastern line with Yuan Tan of Yuan Shao's army versus Zang Ba of Cao Cao's army was a one-sided battle in favor of Cao Cao, as Yuan Tan's own questionable leadership was no match for Xang Ba's local knowledge of the landscape and hit-and-run tactics. To the western side, Yuan Shao's cousin, Gao Gan, performed much better against Cao Cao's army and forced several reinforcements from Cao Cao's main camp to maintain the western battle. Liu Bei, who was at the time a guest in Yuan Shao's army, also suggested to induce uprising in the back of Cao Cao's lands as there were many connections to the Yuan family and their subordinates. The tactic was successful at first, but quickly countered by Man Chong's diplomatic skill. Man Chong had been placed as an official there for this specific reason, as Cao Cao had foreseen the situation prior to the battle.Finally, with the help of a defector from Yuan Shao's army, Xu You, who informed Cao Cao of the location of Yuan Shao's army supply, Cao Cao broke the standstill and sent a special task force to burn all the supplies of Yuan Shao's army and won a decisive and seemingly impossible victory. Yuan Shao fell ill and died shortly after returning from the defeat, leaving his legacy to two of his sons – the eldest son, Yuan Tan and the youngest son, Yuan Shang. As he had designated the youngest son, Yuan Shang, as his successor, rather than the eldest as tradition dictated, the two brothers consistently feuded against each other, as they fought Cao Cao. Because of their internal divisions, Cao Cao was easily able to defeat them by using their differences to his advantage. Henceforth Cao Cao assumed effective rule over all of northern China. He sent armies further out and extended his control past the Great Wall into northern Korea, and southward to the Han River.However, Cao Cao's attempt to extend his domination south of the Yangtze River was unsuccessful. He received an initial great success when Liu Biao, ruler of Jing Zhou, died, and his successor, Liu Zong surrendered to Cao Cao without resistance. Delighted by this turn-out (Cao Cao, a devoted follower of Sun Tzu's Art of War, also considered "defeating your enemy without battle" to be the highest form of achievement of war) he pressed on and hoped the same would happen despite the objections by his military advisors. His forces were then defeated by the first coalition of his archrivals Liu Bei and Sun Quan (who later founded the kingdoms of Shu and Wu respectively) at the Red Cliffs in 208.参考资料:维基百科中国是一个具有非常丰富文化和历史悠久历史的古国用英语怎么说China is an ancient country with rich culture and long history.重点词汇解析:1、ancient读音:英['eɪnʃənt] 美['eɪnʃənt]  释义:adj.古老的;古代的n.古人词语用法:ancient在句中可用于定语,有时候也可用于表语或宾语补充语。

ancient常指太古时代,一般在西洋指Western Roman Empire覆灭以前,即476年前。2、culture读音:英['kʌltʃə(r)] 美['kʌltʃər]  释义:n.栽培;文化;教养vt.培育,栽培词语用法:culture常用作不可数名词,当回应某一特定形式的文化或某种类型的文化时,可用作复数形式。

拓展资料culture的同近义词:civilization英[ˌsɪvəlaɪ'zeɪʃn] 美[ˌsɪvələ'zeɪʃn]  n.文明;文治;教养Chinese civilization is one of the oldest in the world.中国文化是世界上最古老的文化之一。哪有有关中国历史和传统文化的英语短文引荐一本书吧用英语讲解中国中国水利水电出版社出版发行某种程度是传统文化 还有地理 历史 人文 风景名胜 风土人情 等等 用英语说道中国你以后基本不必去找别的书了英文翻译:中国具备历史悠久的历史和美好的文化China has a long history and splendid culture.分析:1、这是一个主谓宾结构的简单句,根据句子意思用一般现在时,主语是第三人称单数,故谓语动词用has。2、句子成分分析:主语:China谓语:has宾语:a long history and splendid culture.3、简单句的基本类型:1)、主语+谓语(不及物动词)+其它。如:He is reading . 他正在整天。

2)、主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语+其它。如:He likes English . 他讨厌英语。3)、主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语+宾语补充语+其它。如:My mother often asks me to go to school on time .我妈妈常常叫我如期上学。

4)、主语+谓语(及物动词)+间接宾语+必要宾语+其它。如:Mr.Li teaches us English . 李老师老师我们英语。5)、主语+系动词+表语+其它。

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如:I am very happy .我很高兴。chinese tea 的英文文章,讲解中国的茶文化!缓!茶来自中国,中国人种茶饮茶有数4000多年的历史了。说道到茶的种类,种类感叹多啊,尤其是龙井茶享有盛名世界。

吃饭用的茶杯,茶壶一般是用陶瓷做到的。吃饭可以在很多地方喝,像餐馆、家里、下班睡觉的时候。但在茶馆喝是最有意境的。吃饭还有很多益处,像不利于身体健康,醒脑饮料,绿茶还防癌。

茶文化历史悠久,我们要把它承传下去。Tea from China, Chinese tea drinking tea has 4000 years of history. When it comes to the types of tea, is really more species, especially longjing tea is famous in the world. Cup of tea, tea POTS are usually made of ceramic. Tea can be drunk in many places, such as restaurants, home, work and rest. But in the teahouse to drink is one of the most artistic conception. Tea has many benefits, like healthy, refreshing refreshing, green tea is also a preventive against cancer. Tea culture has a long history, we have to pass it on.必须给国外朋友卖对中国历史文化感兴趣的书,欲引荐,英文版的,谢谢  关于历史这一块儿:由哈佛大学教授主持人编纂的《剑桥中国史》(The Cambridge History of Ancient China),还有美籍华人黄仁宇先生写出的《中国大历史》 (China—A Macro History),《万历十五年》(1587,A Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty in Decline), 《十六世纪明代中国之财政与税收》(Taxtation and Governmental Finance in Sixteenth Century Ming China),《剑桥中国史》名气相当大,但由于我没有看完,不方便做到评论,我只看完《万历十五年》和《十六世纪明代中国之财政与税收》,相比于《明朝那些事儿》,这两本书认同是稍学术的,但《万历十五年》还是比较较为通俗易懂的。这些书中文版在市面上较为好找,但英文版有可能较为无以了。

  至于文化方面,我引荐林语堂写出的书,林语堂的书大多是用于英文写出的,我们现在在市面上看见的中文版是经由他人翻译成过来的。比如《吾国与吾民》(My Country and My People),这本书曾在美国引发了极大的反响,攀上了美国畅销书排行榜,让当时的西方人理解了中国。这本书的中文版和英文版在市面都有的买,中文版听闻是林语堂请求他学弟老大他翻译成的,有的人指出翻译成的很雅,有的人则指出翻译成的较为古奥,至于英文版的,是外研社出版发行的。


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